Tag Archives: SSL Certificates

How to install a free SSL Certificate in Plesk Onyx

In this episode I’ll explain how to add a free SSL Certificate for web traffic in Plesk Onyx.

First we’ll enable the Let’s Encrypt extension in Plesk, then we’ll create the certificate and prepare our subscription for SSL traffic. And finally, we’ll tweak two values in the WordPress database so that all requests will be directed to https rather than http.

Note that Let’s Encrypt SSL Certificates can only be used to encrypt web traffic between your server and a client’s browser. They cannot currently be used to secure email or Plesk itself (but who knows what the future holds).

Enjoy!

Catch this episode on my WP Guru Podcast:

How to install and secure Dovecot in Plesk 12

dovecotI’ve just installed the Dovecot Mail Service on one of my Plesk 12 servers. It’s an alternative to the old favourite Courier IMAP/POP and a new addition in Plesk 12.

Dovecot does more or less the same as Courier (i.e. lets you receive mail), but it’s a bit more configurable and debug friendly. It also offers server-side mail filtering which is accessible via the Plesk Webmail services Roundcube and Horde.

In this article I’ll show you how to install Dovecot in Plesk 12, and how to add your own SSL certificates for mail. In my previous article I’ve explained how to do this with the standard Courier Mail service.

 

Installing Dovecot in Plesk 12

Head over to

  • Tools and Settings (or the Server Tab)
  • under the Plesk heading
  • Updates and Upgrades

Select Add or Remove Components and under Mail Hosting Features, find the option for Different IMAP/POP3 server:

Screen Shot 2015-01-03 at 15.14.37

You can only install either Courier or Dovecot. Switching will automatically uninstall the component you currently have and instead install the other one.

Note that switching Courier for Dovecot will preserve all mailboxes and will not affect your outgoing mail services. Give Plesk a moment until your see the “installation has finished” message.

You’re now running Dovecot!

 

Patching Dovecot SSL Certificates

As with Courier, Dovecot will use self-signed certificates for secure connections. This means that a nasty window is likely to pop up when clients connect. You can suppress this window by specifying your own SSL Certificates.

Screen Shot 2015-01-03 at 15.12.08

 

The default configuration file for Dovecot is in /etc/dovecot/dovecot.conf. However the file states that any changes you make here are wiped when an upgrade comes along. Instead, take a look at the /etc/dovecot/conf.d/ directory in which you’ll find three files by default:

  • 10-plesk-security.conf
  • 15-plesk-auth.conf
  • 90-plesk-sieve.conf

You can add your own configuration snippets here, each beginning with a number and ending with .conf. The lower the number, the earlier your snippet is loaded. The higher the number, the later it is loaded. You get the picture.

Let’s create /etc/dovecot/conf.d/5-ssl.conf for our purposes. Because I had already configured my certificates for Courier they are still in /usr/share/imapd.pem – but feel free to place your .pem files anywhere you like. Here’s what my file looks like:

Dovecot lets you have separate files for the certificate and the private key, something that’s not possible in Courier as far as I know. Dovecot is also happy to keep those in the same file though as in my example, and as in Courier. Easy going I say!

For the changes to take effect we need to restart the Plesk Mail Service like so:

That’s it!

 

How do I add a certificate for outgoing mail?

Postfix (and QMail) deal with sending mail, Dovecot and Courier only deal with receiving it. I’ve described how to add SSL Certificates to Postfix in my article about Courer.

 

Further Reading

 

How to secure SMTP, POP and IMAP connections in Plesk

Plesk-LogoYou’ve installed an SSL Certificate to secure your Plesk Panel, you’ve tested it with an SSL checker and sure enough: the ugly warning window doesn’t bother you or your customers anymore.

But your email client still says that the server doesn’t have a valid certificate. What gives?

The secret is this: SMTP, IMAP and POP3 use their own certificates which are not related to the ones you setup in Plesk to secure https connections. By default the mail services use auto-generated self-signed certificates.

Sadly as of Plesk 12 there is still no way to manage those in the web interface – but it’s relatively easy to fix on the command line. Let’s go through this step by step.

These instructions are for Plesk 12 on CentOS 6 and CentOS 7, using the default Courier mail service. You can also install an alternative mail service called Dovecot in Plesk 12. I’m discussing how to install Dovecot over here.

 

Default Certificates

We need to replace the following three files (default permissions in brackets):

  • /etc/postfix/postfix_default.pem (600)
  • /usr/share/imapd.pem (400)
  • /usr/share/pop3d.pem (400)

Those are the culprits for SMTP, IMAP and POP3. We need to add our own private key and the certificate of a domain associated with this server and remove the default certificates.

Before we begin, make a safety copy of them like this:

Here we rename the original files to .old files – in case anything goes wrong, simply rename them back into .pem files.

 

Add your own certificate

We need the same file three times, so we’ll start by making one for the SMTP service. Create a new file like this:

and paste first the private key, followed by your certificate into this file. It will look something like this:

The exact same file can be used for both IMAP and POP3 so we can simply copy it to these two new locations:

These two files had 400 permissions by default so that only root can read them, and no one can change them. Let’s adhere to this and apply the same permissions:

 

Restart Plesk Mail Services

For the changes to take effect we’ll need to restart all Plesk mail services:

And that’s it! Now that pesky warning isn’t going to come up anymore when you access Plesk mail with an email client.

 

Adding CA Certificates

The above is enough to suppress the usual warning windows in email clients, however if you’re an avid SSL enthusiast you’ll notice that we’ve not added any CA Certificates to the above .pem files. In essence those tell a client that our certificate is valid – otherwise the client would only have our word for it.

You can add the combined CA Certificate to the end of the three .pem files in addition to the private key and your own certificate. It’s not strictly necessary, but doing this means you will pass strict SSL tests.

Thanks to Mike Yrabedra for this tip, and the test URL below!

Testing your mail services

Mike also found a wonderful service that lets you check an email address which will flag up certificate warnings and exceptions – courtesy of CheckTLS:

  • http://www.checktls.com/perl/TestReceiver.pl

Simply hack in your email address and you’ll see if your certificate is installed properly. Note that to pass the test, your email address must match the domain on the certificate. For example, if your address is you@domain.com, but your certificate is for yourdomain.com then the test will fail the “Cert OK” field.

Screen Shot 2014-12-04 at 12.49.23

 

Wait – where do I find my private key and certificate?

If you’re using the same certificate for mail that you’re using to secure Plesk, simply head over to

  • Tools and Settings (or the Server Tab)
  • Security Settings
  • SSL Certificates
  • click on your certificate from the list
  • scroll down to find plain text sections for your private key and certificate

 

Wait – where do I find that CA Certificate you speak of?

Your certificate provider will give that to you. Some providers call it “intermediate CA certificate”. They usually have several versions of the same thing. Look for a combined version. In essence it’s two plain text blocks, very similar to the ones I’ve shown you above.

For example, the RapidSSL CA certificates can be found here: https://knowledge.rapidssl.com/support/ssl-certificate-support/index?page=content&id=AR1548

Further Reading